Tuesday, November 9, 2010

Who has Taken Action Towards Racism and What were there strategies?

Rosa Parks was born to a carpenter father and a teacher mother. When she was two her parents separated and Rosa went to live with her grandma until she was eleven. When she attended primary school African American’s did not have the rights they have today. She dropping out of collage to care for her ill Grandma and later married Raymond Parks she became active in the NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Coloured People).Rosa worked as a seamstress, and to get to work she rode a bus. In Rosa’s time, African Americans were not allowed to sit at the front of the bus. Sometimes they would pay the bus driver their fair, get out to get on at the front of the bus, and the bus driver would drive off before they re-entered the bus. On December 1st, 1955 after a tiring day working, Rosa was riding home. The driver asked her and three other African Americans to move down for the white passengers. The other three moved but Rosa refused. The police officer came, arrested her and sent her to jail. She was bailed out that afternoon. When the incident happened she decided to stand up for her rights. She was tired of being treated unfair. A group was formed for a boycott of the buses. This meant that African Americans would refuse to ride on the buses until the laws were changed. They did this for 381 days. In that time African American churches were bombed and Martin Luther King JR was assassinated. Finally on November 13th, 1956 the laws were changed and the boycott was over. Rosa was awarded many honours for her courage. A museum in Montgomery, Alabama was dedicated to her. Rosa sadly passed away on October 24, 2005 at the age of 92. Her casket was placed at the USA capital for two days - an honour usually only for when a president dies. People waited for days in long lines to pay their respects. Today African Americans are free to sit wherever they like thanks to the courage of Rosa Parks.

Rosa Parks Strategies:
We think that Rosa Parks’s strategies were that she was confident and encouraging; she encouraged all the African Americans to boycott buses. She also encouraged others that it was wrong. She was confident in not only standing up to the bus driver but also confident in what she believed.

Ralph Bunche was an African America born in 1904. By the time he was 11 both his parents had died. In the mid 1960’s he said ‘I am a Negro I am also an American, this is my country. I own and share it … My Ancestors helped create it, to build it, to make it strong, great and rich. All of this belongs to me as much as it belongs to any American with his white skin.’ He was not in any record at school even though he was smart. Ralph Bunche was the first African American to get a graduate degree in Political Science from Harvard, as well as being a founding member of the United Nations. He was also the first African American to win the Nobel Peace Prize in 1950. In 1949, the NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Coloured People) awarded him the highest honour – the Spingarn Medal. It was said that on his death “He belonged to every nation on earth that yearns for peace”

His Strategy:
He was smart and truly believed in what he was doing and he also had a very convincing speeches.

Martin Luther King JR grew up in the time that it was illegal for African Americans to go to a “white” restaurant or go to a “white” school. Dr King fought for the rights of African Americas. After Rosa Parks was arrested in 1955, Dr King started a bus boycott. He urged people to walk instead of taking the bus. Martin Luther King JR is most famous for his “I Have a Dream” speech. This speech talked about Martin Luther King JR’s dream of equality. He was awarded the Nobel peace prize in 1964. Martin Luther King was assassinated in 1968.

His Strategies:

We think one of martin Luther King strategies were his speech. It was effective and created more of an awareness on the issue he was fighting for (African Americans Rights)

Colleen Shirley Perry was an Aboriginal woman who worked hard to improve the lives of others and the rights of Aboriginal people. She was named ‘Mum’ by her friends because she was like a mother to everyone. Born in Erambie Mission, Cowra, NSW, she was christened and a member of the Wiradjun nations.

Mum Shirl learned from her grandfather, who she called Budjarn about the importance of loving others and helping others in needy times. Those lesions helped her care for others and it became her life’s work.

Mum Shirl had epilepsy which made it hard for her to attended school regularly. Because of this, she was unable to read or write properly. She appreciated it when the people care for her, and wanted to care for others too.

Mum Shirl moved to Redfern, Sydney in the 1930’s. Here she married Darcy Smith and had a daughter. This daughter later lived with Darcy’s parents in Kempsey after she and Darcy Separated.

Mum Shirl’s brother was often in prison. When she went to visit him, he would ask her to visit others who felt lonely. She passed on messages from the prisoners to their families, and continued to do this well after her brother was released. She was the first woman to be awarded a Golden Pass by the NSW department of Corrective Services in 1976. She was allowed to visit any prisoner at any time thanks to this award.

Mum Shirl earned her title ‘The Black Saint of Redfern’. She deserved this, because she cared for everyone, helped others and even cared for children whose parents were unable to care for them. She also gave talks to non-Aboriginal people about racism and prejudice.
For her work Mum Shirl received many awards: A Member of the Order of the British Empire (MBE), the Queen Elizabeth II Silver Jubilee Medal, Australian Parent of the Year, Medal of the Order of Australia (AM), Aboriginal of the Year, and NAIDOC Senior Aboriginal of the Year. Mum Shirl was named Australia’s 100 Nations Living Treasures in 1998. She unfortunately died that year. She is remembered for her courage and ability, and standing up for what she believed in.